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          2021考研英语一答案及试题解析(部分)

          2020-12-30 10:45:57| 来源:江西中公教育

          2021考研英语一答案及试题解析(部分)

          Section I Use of English

          Directions:

          Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

          Fluid intelligence is the type of intelligence that has to do with short-term memory and the ability to think quickly, logically, and abstractly in order to solve new problems. It 1 in young adulthood, levels out for a period of time, and then 2 starts to slowly decline as we age. But 3 aging is inevitable, scientists are finding out that certain changes in brain function may not be.

          One study found that muscle loss and the 4 of body fat around the abdomen are associated with a decline in fluid intelligence. This suggests the 5 that lifestyle factors might help prevent or 6 this type of decline.

          The researchers looked at data that 7 measurements of lean muscle and abdominal fat from more than 4,000 middle-to-older-aged men and women and 8 that data to reported changes in fluid intelligence over a six-year period. They found that middle-aged people 9 higher measures of abdominal fat 10 worse on measures of fluid intelligence as the years 11 .

          For women, the association may be 12 to changes in immunity that resulted from excess abdominal fat; in men, the immune system did not appear to be 13 . It is hoped that future studies could 14 these differences and perhaps lead to different 15 for men and women.

          16 , there are steps you can 17 to help reduce abdominal fat and maintain lean muscle mass as you age in order to protect both your physical and mental 18 . The two highly recommended lifestyle approaches are maintaining or increasing your 19 of aerobic exercise and following Mediterranean-style 20 that is high in fiber and eliminates highly processed foods.

          1. [A] pauses [B] returns [C] peaks [D] fades

          2. [A] alternatively [B]formally [C]accidentally [D] generally

          3. [A] while [B] since [C] once [D] until

          4. [A] detection [B] accumulation [C] consumption [D] separation

          5. [A] possibility [B] decision [C] goal [D] requirement

          6. [A] delay [B] ensure [C] seek [D] utilize

          7. [A] modified [B] supported [C] included [D] predicted

          8. [A] devoted [B] compared [C] converted [D] applied

          9. [A] with [B] above [C] by [D] against

          10. [A] lived [B] managed [C] scored [D] played

          11. [A] ran out [B] set off [C] drew in [D] went by

          12. [A] superior [B] attributable [C] parallel [D] resistant

          13. [A] restored [B] isolated [C] involved [D] controlled

          14. [A] alter [B] spread [C] remove [D] explain

          15. [A] compensations [B] symptoms [C] demands [D] treatments

          16. [A] Likewise [B] Meanwhile [C] Therefore [D] Instead

          17. [A] change [B] watch [C] count [D] take

          18. [A] well-being [B] process [C] formation [D] coordination

          19. [A] level [B] love [C] knowledge [D] space

          20. [A] design [B] routine [C] diet [D] prescription

          1. 【答案】C(peaks)

          【解析】逻辑关系题。and then提示顺承,借助slowly decline(慢慢下降)可知,C项peaks(达到最高点)符合原文逻辑关系,即流动智力在成年早期达到峰值,之后很长一段时间趋于稳定,之后随着年龄增长,慢慢下降。本题答案为C项。

          干扰选项:A项pauses(暂停),B项returns(返回)和D项fades(逐渐消失),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

          2. 【答案】D(generally)

          【解析】语境题。比较各选项语义,A项

          alternatively(二者择一地),B项formally(形式上地),C项accidentally(偶然地)和D项generally(通常),其中,D项generally(通常)最符合原文语义。本题答案为D项。

          3. 【答案】A(while)

          【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查句内逻辑关系,比较aging is inevitable和scientists are finding out that … may not be可知,inevitable和may not be提示语义相反,即“衰老不可避免”,与“科学家们发现大脑功能的某些变化可能并非不可避免”二者语义相反。A项while(尽管)提示让步,符合原文逻辑关系。本题答案为A项。

          干扰选项:B项since(由于)提示因果关系,C项once(一旦)提示条件关系,D项until(到……为止)提示顺承关系,均不符合原文逻辑关系。

          4. 【答案】B(accumulation)

          【解析】逻辑关系题。and提示并列,muscle loss和the 4 of body fat around the abdomen(腹部脂肪的 4 )互相并列,借助muscle loss(肌肉流失)可知,B项accumulation(积累)符合原文逻辑关系,即,肌肉流失和腹部脂肪堆积。本题答案为B项。

          干扰选项:A项detection(侦查),C项consumption(消耗)和D项separation(分离),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

          5. 【答案】A(possibility)

          【解析】语境题。This指代上句的研究发现,本句继续介绍研究发现。比较各选项语义,A项possibility(可能性),B项decision(决定),C项goal(目标)和D项requirement(要求),可知,A项possibility符合原文语义,即,这表明生活方式因素可能有助预防这种下降的可能性。本题答案为A项。

          6. 【答案】A(delay)

          【解析】逻辑关系题。or提示并列,借助prevent(预防)可知,A项delay(延期)符合原文逻辑关系,即预防或延迟流动智力下降。本题答案为A项。

          干扰选项:B项ensure(保证),C项seek(寻求)和D项utilize(利用),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

          7. 【答案】C(included)

          【解析】语境题。本题考查连接data(数据)和measurements(测量结果)的动词词义。比较各选项语义,A项modified(修改),B项supported(支持),C项included(包括)和D项predicted(预 测),可知C项included符合原文语义,即研究人员查看了包括4,000多名中老年男性和女性瘦肌肉群和腹部脂肪测量结果的数据。本题答案为C项。

          8. 【答案】B(compared)

          【解析】逻辑关系题。and提示并列,looked at data和 8 that data to reported changes互相并列,借助looked at(查看)可知,B项compared(比较)符合原文逻辑关系,且能与介词to构成固定搭配,compare … to…(将……与……相比)。本题答案为B项。

          干扰选项:其余各项与介词to构成固定搭配,A项devoted … to…(把……用于),C项converted … to…(把……转化为……),D项applied … to…(把……应用于……),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

          9. 【答案】A(with)

          【解析】固定搭配题。观察选项可知,本题考查介词用法。比较各选项,A项with(带有……),B项above(在……上面),C项by(通过……)和D项against(与……相反),可知,A项with连接higher measures of abdominal fat,作后置定语修饰people,符合原文语义,即,有着更高腹部脂肪的中年人。本题答案为A项。

          10. 【答案】C(scored)

          【解析】语境题。比较各选项语义,A项lived(生活),B项managed(管理),C项scored(得分)和D项played(玩耍),可知,C项scored符合原文语义,即,他们发现,有着更多腹部脂肪的中年人,在流动智力方面得分较低。本题答案为C项。

          11. 【答案】D(went by)

          【解析】固定搭配题。借助as the years(随着年岁……),并比较各选项语义,A项ran out(用完),B项set off(出发),C项drew in(引诱)和D项went by(时间逝去),可知,D项went by符合原文语义。本题答案为D项。

          12. 【答案】B(attributable)

          【解析】语境题。结合resulted from excess abdominal fat(腹部脂肪过多所致),并比较各选项与介词to构成的搭配,A项superior to(比……好的),B项attributable to(可归因于……),C项parallel to(与……平行的)和D项resistant to(不受……损害的),可知,B项attributable符合原文语义,即,对于女性来说,这种关联(腹部脂肪越高,流动智力方面的得分越低)可能要归因于腹部脂肪过多所致的免疫力变化。本题答案为B项。

          13. 【答案】C(involved)

          【解析】逻辑关系题。For women与in men提示对比关系,借助the association may be 12 to changes in immunity(这种关联可能 12 免疫力变化)可知,C项involved(使成为必然部分,与be连用时,可理解为“与……有关”)符合原文语义,即,对男性来说,(这种关联)似乎与免疫系统无关;且符合原文逻辑。本题答案为C项。

          干扰选项:A项restored(被恢复),B项isolated(被孤立)和D项controlled(被控制),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

          14. 【答案】D(explain)

          【解析】语境题。本题考查连接future studies和these differences的动词语义,而these differences是指上句中男性和女性的流动智力得分,与腹部脂肪堆积所致的免疫力变化有关与无关的区别。现有研究只发现了这种区别,而背后的原因,只能寄希望于未来相关研究。D项explain(解释)符合原文语义,即,希望未来研究能解释这些区别。本题答案为D项。

          干扰选项:A项alter(改变),B项spread(展开)和C项remove(去掉),均不符合原文语义。

          15. 【答案】D(treatments)

          【解析】语境题。借助lead to different 15 for men and women(促成针对女性和男性的不同 15 ),并结合these differences所指的免疫力与流体智力间二者间的关联在男性和女性中体现不同,可知,D项treatments(疗法)符合原文语义,即,或许会促成针对女性和男性的不同疗法。本题答案为D项。

          干扰选项:A项compensations(补偿),B项symptoms(症状)和C项demands(要求),均不符合原文语义。

          16. 【答案】B(Meanwhile)

          【解析】逻辑关系题。观察选项可知,本题考查句间逻辑关系。比较上句与本句发现:从内容上说,上句为对未来研究的期待,本句为目前可采取的措施(steps);从文章段落结构来说,上段为研究结论,本段为研究带来的启示。前后两句呈现研究的不同方面,体现对比关系。观察选项,B项Meanwhile(与此同时)符合原文逻辑关系,即期待未来进一步研究的同时,目前也可以采取一些措施,二者方向不同,但可同时进行。本题答案为B项。

          干扰选项:A项Likewise(同样地)提示并列关系,C项Therefore(因此)提示因果关系,D项Instead(相反地)提示转折关系,均不符合原文逻辑关系。

          17. 【答案】D(take)

          【解析】固定搭配题。take steps(采取措施)为固定搭配,且符合原文语义,即,您可以采取一些措施来帮助减少腹部脂肪并保持瘦肌肉群。本题答案为D项。

          干扰选项:A项change(改变),B项watch(观察)和C项count(数),均不能与steps构成符合原文语义的固定搭配。

          18. 【答案】A(well-being)

          【解析】语境题。由protect both your physical and mental …(保护您身体和心理的……)可知,A项well-being(健康)符合原文语义,即,为了保护您的身心健康。本题答案为A项。

          干扰选项:B项process(过程),C项formation(形成)和D项coordination(协调),均不符合原文语义。

          19. 【答案】A(level)

          【解析】语境题。结合aerobic exercise(有氧运动),并比较各选项,A项level(水平),B项love(热爱),C项knowledge(知识)和D项space(空间),可知,A项符合原文语义,即,维持或提高有氧运动水平。本题答案为A项。

          20. 【答案】C(diet)

          【解析】逻辑关系题。and提示并列,借助exercise(锻炼),并结合空格后high in fiber(高纤维)和eliminates highly processed foods(去除高度加工的食品),可知,C项diet(日常饮食)符合原文逻辑,即,两种强烈推荐的生活方式分别为:维持或提高有氧运动水平,以及遵循高纤维、去除高度加工食品的地中海式饮食习惯。本题答案为C项。

          干扰选项:A项design(设计),B项routine(常规)和D项prescription(药方),均不符合原文逻辑关系。

          Section II Reading Comprehension

          Part A

          Directions:

          Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

          Text 1

          How can the train operators possibly justify yet another increase to rail passenger fares? It has become a grimly reliable annual ritual: every January the cost of travelling by train rises, imposing a significant extra burden on those who have no option but to use the rail network to get to work or otherwise. This year’s rise, an average of 2.7 per cent, may be a fraction lower than last year’s, but it is still well above the official Consumer Price Index (CPI) measure of inflation.

          Successive governments have permitted such increases on the grounds that the cost of investing in and running the rail network should be borne by those who use it, rather than the general taxpayer. ...? Equally, there is a sense that the travails of commuters in the South East, many of whom will face among the biggest rises, have received too much attention compared to those who must endure the relatively poor infrastructure of the Midlands and the North.

          However, over the past 12 months, those commuters have also experienced some of the worst rail strikes in years. ...The responsibility for the latest wave of strikes rests on the unions. However, there is a strong case that those who have been worst affected by industrial action should receive compensation for the disruption they have suffered.

          The Government has pledged to change the law to introduce a minimum service requirement so that, even when strikes occur, ..., more investment is needed, but passengers will not be willing to pay more indefinitely if they must also endure cramped, unreliable services, punctuated by regular chaos when timetables are changed, or planned maintenance is managed incompetently. The threat of nationalisation may have been seen off for now, but it will return with a vengeance if the justified anger of passengers is not addressed in short order.

          21. The author holds that this year’s increase in rail passengers fares ______.

          A. will ease train operators’ burden

          B. has kept pace with inflation

          C. is a big surprise to commuters

          1 2 3 4 5

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